Japanese grammar 時, とき, toki

Japanese grammar 時, とき, toki

Let’s learn Japanese grammar 時, とき, toki

JLPT level : N5

Formation :

Nのとき
Aなー>なとき
Aいー>いとき
Vる/Vた+とき
Vた+とき :

Meaning and how to use :

1. Describe 2 things happening at once.
Combination:
Nのとき
Aなー>なとき
Aいー>いとき
Vる+とき

For example

小さいとき、渋谷県に親と住んでいた。
Chisai tokishibuya ken ni oya to sun de ta.
When I was small, I lived with my parents in Shibuya province.

兄が6歳のとき、事故があって、不自由な人になった。
Ani ga sai no tokijiko ga attefujiyu na hito ni natta.
When he was 6, he was in an accident and became disable.

2.Describe a state, an event that was formed at the same time with another. It means when the event beforeとき is happening, the event afterとき happens. If wwe use this structure, the verb in first clause is in in infinitive form.
Only use with: た form+とき

For example

日本に留学したとき、かなこちゃんと友達になった。
Nippon ni ryuugaku shi ta toki, kana ko chanto tomodachi ni natta.
When I studied abroad in Japan, I became a friend of Kanako.

中学生だったとき、いろいろな本を読んだ。今1冊でも読みたくない。
chuugakusei datta toki, iroiro na hon o yon da. Ima 1 satsu demo yomi taku nai.
When I was a high school student I used to read a lot of books. Now, I don’t want to read even one.

3. Describe the meaning “before/ while an event is happening, another happens”.
Only used with: Vる+とき

For example

出かけるとき、コートを着ます。
dekakeru toki, kōto o ki masu.
I had worn a coat before i went out

京都に来ると山田さんの家に訪問します。
kyouto ni kuru to yamada san no ie ni houmon shi masu.
While I was on the road to Kyouto, I dropped in on Yamada’s house.

4. Describe an action that is done at first, then another is done too.
Only used with: Vた+とき

For example

電車を下りたとき忘れ物をしたことに気をつける。
densha o ori ta toki wasuremono o shi ta koto ni ki o tsukeru.
After I had got off the tram, I realized that I forgot something.

ご飯を食べ終わったとき「ごちそうさま」と言います。
gohan o tabeowatta toki ‘gochisousama’ to ii masu.
Say “Gochisousama” after having meal.

Related structures :

above is Japanese grammar 時, とき, toki. if you don’t understand the signs we used in fomation, you can find their meaning here : signs used in Japanese grammar structures.

You can search the structure you want by using the search tool on our website (using key : grammar + ‘structure name’ or you can find more Japanese grammar structures in the following category : Japanese grammar dictionary

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