Learn minna no nihongo lesson 27

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3. Grammar

Potential form of verb

Group I: Vう becomes Vえる

Example :

いく : to goいける : can go
飲む : to drink飲める : can drink
あう : to meetあえる : can meet

Group II: + られる。


たべる : to eatたべられる : can eat
つける : to turn onつけられる : can turn on

Group III: します becomes できます

きます becomes こられます

Sentence containing potential form of verb

Meaning : can do something ~

Usage :

N を Vること が できます
N が  V-in potential form

– Use to express abilities.
– Use to talk about actions that are allowed to perform.
– The particle を becomes が
– The verbs in potential form belong to Group 2

Example :

私は 日本語が 話せます。
Watashi ha nihongo ga hanasemasu.
I can speak Japanese.

私は日本語を 話すことが できます。
Watashi ha nihongo wo hanasu koto ga dekimasu.
I can speak Japanese.

~ がみえます/ 聞こえます。

Meaning : can hear/see something from somewhere

Usage :

With [聞く] and [見る], there are 2 ways to change to potential form. Both 2 ways have the same meaning (can hear/can see). However, there are differences between the 2 ways :

– Express intentional listening / seeing

– Express functions and tasks of an object

– Be used to express ability or action that is allowed to perform

Example :

映画館で フランスの 映画 が 見られます。
Eigakan de furansu no eiga ga miraremasu.
We can watch a French movie at a cinema.

Mainichi, isogashii desukara, terebi ga miraremasen.
I am busy every day, so I can not watch TV.

電話で ラジオが 聞けます。
Denwa de rajio ga kikemasu.
You can listen to the radio on your phone.

– Express accidental hearing / seeing

– Not be used to express abilities

Example :

Heya kara karaoke no oto ga kikoemasu.
I can hear the sound of karaoke from the room

Shinkansen kara fujisan ga miemasu.
You can see Mt. Fuji from the Shinkansen

Use は with particle

Usage : Be added after a particle to emphasize something

Example : 

Watashi no gakkou niha  nihonjin no sensei ga imasu.
In my shool, there are Japanese teachers.

Note With the particles such as が・を, we don’t add は after them to emphasize because が・を  will be replaced with は

Use は to emphasize

N1 は ~ が ,N2 は  ~

Meaning : N1 has ~ but N2 doesn’t have~

Usage : Used to emphasize the comparison

Example :

Kinou ha yama ga miemashita ga, kyou ha yama ga miemasen.
Yesterday we saw the mountain, but today we don’t.


Meaning : Only ~

Usage :

– Express that there is only a little something or the regret of the speaker
– しか replaces が・を

– The predicate is always in negative form.

Example : 

Kono ji shika kakemasen.
I can only write this letter.

~ が できます

Meaning : have been finished/done

Example :

Atarashii ie ga dekimashita.
Our new house have been done.

4. Kaiwa 

何でも 作れるんですね。
nani demo tsukurerun desu ne.

鈴木: 明るくて、いい 部屋ですね。
Suzuki: akaruku te, ii heya desu ne.

ミラー: ええ。天気が いい 日には 海が 見えるんです。
Miller: ee. tenki ga ii hi ni ha umi ga mierun desu.

鈴木: この テーブルは おもしろい デザインですね。
アメリカで 買ったんですか。
Suzuki: kono te-buru ha omoshiroi dezain desu ne.
amerika de kattan desu ka.

ミラー: これは わたしが 作ったんですよ。
Miller: kore ha watashi ga tsukuttan desu yo.

鈴木: えっ、ほんとうですか。
Suzuki: e,, hontou desu ka.

ミラー: ええ。日曜大工が 趣味なんです。
Miller: ee. nichiyou daiku ga shumi nan desu.

鈴木: へえ。じゃ、あの 本棚も 作ったんですか。
Suzuki: hee. ja, ano hondana mo tsukuttan desu ka.

ミラー: ええ。
Miller: ee.

鈴木: すごいですね。ミラーさん、何でも 作れるんですね。
Suzuki: sugoi desu ne. mira san, nani demo tsukurerun desu ne.

ミラー: わたしの 夢は いつか 自分で 家を 建てる ことなんです。
Miller: watashi no yume ha itsuka jibun de ie o tateru koto nan desu.

鈴木: すばらしい 夢ですね。
Suzuki: subarashii yume desu ne.


You can make anything.

Suzuki: That’s a bright and good room.

Miller: Yeah. We can see the sea on a sunny day.

Suzuki: This table has an interesting design.

Did you buy in the United States?

Miller: I made this.

Suzuki: Eh, really?

Miller: Yeah. My hobby is being a weekend carpenter.

Suzuki: Well, did you also make that bookshelf?

Miller: Yes.

Suzuki: That’s great. Mr Miller, you can make anything.

Miller: My dream is building a house by myself someday.

Suzuki: That’s a wonderful dream.

Please see the renshuu section on the next page.

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